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3. Examining the Structural Validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a Multilevel Framework

Examining the Structural Validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a Multilevel Framework
Pages 16-24
Azzopardi, L. M., Camilleri, L., Sammut, F., and Cefai, C.

Abstract:

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), proposed by Goodman (1997), has been used by many researchers to measure the social, emotional and behaviour difficulties in children. The SDQ comprises four difficulty subscales measuring emotional, conduct, hyperactivity and peer problems. It also includes a fifth subscale measuring prosocial behaviour. A sample of 5200 Maltese students who were aged between 6 and 16 years was used to investigate the multilevel factor structure underlying the teachers’ version of the SDQ. Statistical analysis in this study was conducted using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Multilevel Structural Equation Modelling (MSEM). The study finds that a two-level three-factor model fits the data marginally better than a single-level three-factor model.

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