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5. Alcohol, Cannabinoids and Nicotine in Liver Pathophysiology

Alcohol, Cannabinoids and Nicotine in Liver Pathophysiology
Pages 132-136
Radic, M., Rappa, F., Barone, R., Cappello, F., Crescimanno, G., Casarrubea, M., Perucci, M., Marino Gammazza, A., and Di Giovanni, G.


The liver can be affected by a wide range of therapeutic and environmental chemicals and here we want to provide a summary of the complex effects of alcohol, cannabinoids and nicotine on liver function. Alcohol is the most important agent that produces liver injury, manifesting as alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition, it is one of the main etiologic agents for hepatocellular  carcinoma development. Studies reviewed in this article regarding cannabinoids, show that Δ9-THC does not produce any harmful effects on the liver, while cannabidiol has hepatoprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion and alcohol-induced liver injuries. The liver is negatively affected by nicotine exposure, but surprisingly nicotine was shown to have a positive effect on the liver in the diet-induced obese animal model, which should be confirmed by future research.


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